Scotland – Land of the ‘almost’ Midnight Sun

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A stunning sunset captured over the Isle of Rum

In the north of Scotland we’re about four days away from losing all astronomical twilight and entering a period of sustained ‘nautical twilight’.

During this time the centre of the Sun’s disk never dips more than 12 degrees below the horizon, rendering our clear night skies a dark azure blue, with only the Moon, planets and brightest stars visible after midnight.

This will continue until mid July when astronomical twilight finally reappears.

Contrast this with London, where astronomical twilight continues right through mid summer, producing much darker night skies, but arguably less beautiful and prolonged sunsets.

Clear skies.

Inverness

We’re leaving astronomical twilight behind for several months here in the north of Scotland

London

Significantly darker night skies persist through mid summer in southern England.  Here’s the contrasting data for London.

GSC On Tour

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Ross teaching us how to make a comet in a bin bag!

We had a great day of outdoor and indoor astronomy learning with our guests from Glasgow Science Centre on Saturday.

Ross and Andrew travelled all the way up to the A9 loaded with space and science kit to kick off this year’s first daytime event for the Star Stories programme.

Ross ran a fascinating hands-on Comet making workshop in one of the outdoor woodcraft sheds, demonstrating how Comets form and disintegrate as they travel round the Sun.

Meanwhile Andrew presented an indoor planetarium show using a projector and Stellarium software, taking audiences across the night sky and explaining some of the science and mythology surrounding the constellations.

Everyone seemed to have a great time and we’re looking forward to continuing the summer programme with our Summer Solstice event on the 21st June.  Please check my facebook page for booking details in the weeks ahead.

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Interactive exhibits kept the youngsters entertained between learning streams

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Outdoor astronomy learning

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Andrew’s star hopping presentation

 

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Stargazing at Roseisle

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Starry skies over the Moray coast

Amidst a very busy schedule last month I managed to head out to Roseisle (along the Moray coast) for some observing and a wild camp.  My original mission was to try and catch a geomagnetic storm predicted by the MET office space weather forecasts.  As it happened the promised aurora didn’t arrive but I did manage to get some photos of the starry skies that opened up on Saturday night, starting with the International Space Station.

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Not the most fantastic ISS shot but I only had about 20 seconds to set up after running down the dunes to capture the pass!.  The station is actually travelling from west to east here, towards Sirius (bright star on left)

From there I took a number of pictures hoping to capture some aurora, but instead imaging the crisp starry skies.  I’ll let the photos do the talking from here – please read the caption notes.

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This image of the Plough (minus Alkaid) was snapped while I was still under the trees, on my approach to the beach.  You can clearly see the naked eye double star Mizar-Alcor at the bottom of the image.  The main stars in the Plough are roughly 100 lights years away.  Our Sun would not be visible naked eye if placed this far away which tells us something about the scale and luminosity of these titan stars.

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Looking north towards Burghead where I hoped to capture some aurora.  Instead I picked up the rich star fields within the Milky Way near Cassiopeia.

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One of many passing satellites.

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An interesting shot looking north west.  The bright white light is the Portmahomack lighthouse and the orange light pollution on the right is likely from Helmsdale.  Perhaps the most interesting feature in this photo is the faint smudge of light in the top left.  That’s the Andromeda galaxy – a separate spiral galaxy (larger than our Milky Way) over 2.5 million light years away.

Milky Way

In the Scottish Highlands we’re blessed with many dark locations from which to view the Milky Way, the band of diffuse light revealing our place within a giant spiral galaxy.

Even if you live in a busy city like Inverness, a short drive is all that’s needed to escape to relatively dark skies. Regrettably, in many parts of the UK and central Europe this important connection with our home galaxy has been rubbed out due to light pollution.

Looking up at the Milky Way lets us connect with something vast and far bigger than ourselves – an important check on our own sense of self importance.

More needs to be done to curtail unnecessary outdoor lighting and to educate people on the basics of dark sky preservation.  Retaining access to our night skies needn’t be an economically crippling ideal.  There are simple practical steps people can take that make dramatic differences.  Please see this excellent guide on the International Dark Sky Association website for tips on how you can help.

I’ve made a short video celebrating our views of the Milky Way and how overwhelmed our position is amidst an estimated two trillion other galaxies in the observable universe.

The Winter Sun at Clava Cairns

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Looking south west from inside the north east cairn at Clava

As a family we have a yearly tradition of heading out for a longish walk on Christmas Eve.  We usually park up somewhere remote in the van, make some bacon rolls then head out along a forest trail or up a local hill.  This year we decided to see if we could catch the setting Sun at Clava Cairns, a beautiful bronze age site located only a mile or so from Culloden battlefield near Inverness.

During my astronomy outreach I’ve given quite a few talks referencing Clava Cairns in relation to the fascinating subject of ancient astronomy.  Often wild speculations are made about many prehistoric sites, in particular Stonehenge, with dubious claims of alignments to stellar constellations or complex planetary cycles.  But one thing is almost universally agreed by archaeologists and astronomers alike, that many of these ancient structures were configured to mark the passage of the solar year.

In Clava’s case, both main passage cairns have mid winter setting sun alignments facing towards the south west, such that for several days either end of the shortest day, the light from the setting Sun will shine down the central passage and light up the interior of the structure.

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Sun rays striking the winter solstice aligned passage.

Of course it’s one thing to read second hand accounts of this phenomena, and quite another to experience them first hand.  As luck would have it, when we approached the site around 3.30pm the Sun was clearly visible and just setting in the south west, allowing us to witness this amazing spectacle and to capture some photographs.

From inside the north east cairn, closest to the main entrance of the site, the passage was already brightly washed over with sunlight.  I was curious to determine if the sun’s position was low enough to light the passage when it was originally covered over (several thousand years ago), so crouched down within the passage to take some of my shots.  Sure enough, the rays of the Sun could be directly sighted down the camera lens.

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My daughter Violet standing in the sunlight directed down the main passage of the north east cairn.

The motivation for the astronomical alignment of these structures is still the topic of heated debate amongst historians and archaeologists, but one thing residents of the north of Scotland can appreciate first hand is the depressingly short days and long hard winters we experience at this time of year.  Some sort of large scale and perhaps communal confirmation that the south westerly extreme of the winter sunset (and its associated low midday elevation) had been reached would have been very reassuring to early agricultural societies.

It’s this concept of the Sun both halting its low elevation in the south at midday and the most southern extreme of its setting and rising positions that gives rise to the word Solstice – ‘sol ‘ sistere’ meaning Sun standstill.  The reverse applies during mid summer when the sun rises and sets at its most extreme positions to the north of east and west, and reaches its highest elevation at midday.

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The two main passage cairns at Clava have south westerly mid winter sunset alignments.

There are some researchers who go much further, and point to alignments between the stones at Clava Cairns with the Celtic cross quarter days and the more complex dynamics of major and minor lunar standstills.  Whilst these may be true it should also be remembered that it only takes two points to make a straight line!  As ever we need to be cautious with our wish to believe, and back everything up, where possible, with evidence.

Scapa Festival 2019

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I’m very happy to confirm I’ll be providing more stargazing and astronomy walks and talks at the 2019 Scapa Festival.  Details on my stargazing itinerary at the festival can be found here.

Last years’s festival was fantastic.  Very chilled, friendly and suited to a wide demographic, from families all the way to solo travellers.

I travelled with my family last year in the camper-van and we had a great time, despite none of us particularly being yoga people.  There were so many other great things to do, like bushcraft, nature walks and foraging workshops.  But probably the best time we had was just hanging out in the huge gardens, letting the wee ones play.

To find out more about Scapa please visit their website here or facebook.